The global debate on the energy transition is also heating up in African countries. It relates to the urgent need for climate change adaptation, resilience, and mitigation as highlighted by the Paris Agreement of 2015. This agreement committed member countries to limit global temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius. According to the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), the concept of energy transition refers to a long-term, structural change in energy systems and sources to achieve a sustainable and secure energy future while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating climate change. This brief focuses on the ongoing energy transition debate in Tanzania by examining the progress, potential and challenges it poses for the country to transition from fossil fuels to cleaner energy sources.