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The 2017 -2020 strategic plan (SP) of Policy Forum focuses more on strengthening the Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning (MEL) practices within the network by fusing Results Based Management with ‘Process Tracing’ to deepen the understanding of the impact of the advocacy and policy influencing work that PF facilitates and help strengthen the ‘contribution claims’ by examining the processes where change is thought to have occurred and improve the credibility of the claims. Currently, Policy Forum is gathering evidence of the dynamics, causal links, the positive or negative changes and lesson learned throughout the two years of implementing the new SP for program improvement. Embedded is a video showcasing a positive result of the morning Breakfast Debate coordinated by PF as a platform for its members and other stakeholders to discuss systemic policy issues.


Back in 2006, the Integrated Labour Force Survey (ILFS) noted that the number of informal sector operators in Tanzania was growing fast and their share to the GDP was significant with implications on Government loses in revenue if they were not taxed.

A recent study by Policy Forum in 2018 corroborates this observation but stresses that in order to adequately determine the extent of revenue losses, an appropriate measure of the size of the informal sector is needed. The report “The Nexus between Taxation of the Informal Sector and Inequality in Tanzania,” notes that it depends on how the concept of informality is treated, operationalized, managed and what empirical information is relevant and available to enhance policy.

To this end, it was useful for stakeholders to meet and discuss this topic on informal enterprises and what it means to a Tanzania striving to become a middle-income country. The Policy Forum’s March Breakfast Debate entitled “Transforming Trade and Industry in Tanzania: Facilitating the Formalization of Micro-enterprises” convened on micro-enterprises to air their views on how policy issues impacting small firms.

Dr. Olomi from IMED (Institute of Management and Entrepreneurship Development) stressed that youth and adults participate in the informal sector as a way of generating income and opportunity for self-employment. Through self-employment, there is more employment opportunities creation, technological progress, and increase in per capital income as well as reduction of absolute poverty, (Tanzania Human Development Report, 2014). Informal Sector entrepreneurs can also mobilize their own savings. This reduces its vulnerability to external shocks compared with the levels faced by the formal sector.

In Tanzania, the informal sector includes non-agricultural enterprises owned by individuals or households that are not constituted as separate legal entities independent of their owners, have limited set of accounts and produce some of their goods and services for sale, (Integrated Labor Force Survey, 2014). It consists of mainly the registered, unregistered and hard-to tax groups such as micro scale traders, street vendors, retailers and in rare cases wholesalers who trade in products such as food, clothes and electronic appliances, small manufacturers, craftsmen, individual professionals and other small-scale businesses.

Specifically, on youth, he continued to say that the government recognizes them as a significant group in national development strategies. Several programmes are targeting youth entrepreneurship  and  transformation  to  formal  sector  that  can  be  more  sustainable  and  enable  government collect tax.

More broadly, Tanzania has piloted several approaches to formalize the micro enterprises. Faraji Mbulalina from President's Office Regional Administration and Local Government said that entrepreneurs have been provided with special areas to conduct their businesses and continued by noting that PORALG, through H.E John Magufuli, has initiated the process of providing the informal sector with identity cards in order to recognize their businesses.

Ambassador of Denmark to Tanzania , H.E. Einar Jensen stressed informal businesses are an untapped resource. The reality of substantial, important and valuable economic activity taking place in small firms has not yet been reflected in the legal, regulatory and policy framework to any great extent. Both the TRA and the local government authorities are more preoccupied with the short-term objective of maximizing revenue from small firms than in strengthening their performance in the regional, national and local economy, the source of long-term prosperity.

Japhet Makongo, Policy Forum’s Board - Chairperson stressed that government should use all participatory best practices in the current small-business formalisation drive in Tanzania. The government, through the small and medium industries should continue to promote SMEs development through the provision of advisory services, infrastructure facilities, market access, financial support and many other supporting services. This may help a number of Small and Medium Enterprises program to develop with the vision of improving the competitiveness at the market and at the end be formal business.

Furthermore, in the process of formalization, it is upon the government to revise the business registration processes by reducing the cost of registration imposed by BRELA and smoothen the registration requirements so as to attract more informal business to register their business. This will improve processes of registration and incentivize entrepreneurs and business operators to register their business and enhance formalization

One of the participants from the SMEs commented that when the government introduced the tags, they were sold but asked whether they are any services provided to facilitate the ease of doing business and also suggested that SMEs should be involved in making and implementing the PORALG business manual.

The Embassy of Switzerland in Dar es Salaam through the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) has launched the third phase of its Social Accountability Programme (SAP) which provides support to key national Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) who are working to improve accountability in Tanzania.

Switzerland is committed to further its support towards enhanced responsiveness and accountability of public authorities for better services to women, men and youth in Tanzania. Switzerland will contribute USD 7.64 million (TZS 18 billion) over the next four years to key accountability organizations: The Foundation for Civil Society (FCS), Policy Forum, and Twaweza.

The Embassy of Switzerland is proud to be partnering with these CSOs who are key policy actors working for the betterment of the lives of ordinary Tanzanians. Switzerland firmly believes that a vibrant civil society is key to Tanzania’s ambitious development agenda of becoming a middle income country by 2025.

SAP complements Switzerland’s support to key accountability actors of the Government of Tanzania, including a long standing partnership with the Prevention and Combating of Corruption Bureau (PCCB) in enhancing its investigative capacity, as well as the Swiss contribution to the Good Financial Governance (GFG) programme. The GFG programme, implemented by GIZ, provides capacity building and technical support to the National Audit Office, the Internal Auditor General Division and select local government authorities for improved financial governance and increased domestic resource mobilization.

Switzerland has supported bilateral and regional projects in Tanzania since the early 1960s and continues to provide around USD 22 million in assistance annually, covering the health, employment and income, and governance sectors. 

About FCS

FCS is a grant making and capacity building organization, supporting grassroots CSOs across the country. FCS provides grants and capacity support to an average of 150 CSOs annually under their key thematic focus areas. For more information:

About Policy Forum

Policy Forum is a national policy advocacy network with a membership of 79 CSOs focusing on an accountable use of public resources in various sectors. For more information:

About Twaweza

Twaweza is a regional CSO focusing on citizen agency and civic space. Twaweza works to protect civic space, enable citizen voices to be taken seriously in decision-making and showcase citizens solving their own problems. For more information:

Photo credit to Reinout


Stakeholders of the wildlife conservation have urged the government to align conflicting Acts that affect wildlife and tourism sectors for better conservation and management. The stakeholders voiced their concern during the Policy Forum’s February Breakfast Debate entitled “Challenges of Managing Natural Resources with Conflicting Legislation: The Case of The Wildlife Act”. One among the conflicting legislation is the Wildlife Act and Mining legislation. The chairperson of Tanzania Parliamentarian Friends of Environment (TAPAFE), Hon. Jitu Vrajlal Soni, Member of Parliament from Babati accentuated that the Wildlife law prohibits mining activities in Reserved Lands. However, Mining legislations give power to the Minister responsible to issue permits and licenses for a person or a company to conduct Mining activities in any area of Land in Mainland Tanzania. On the same line, it was emphasized that, a reserved land therefore can be de-gazetted to allow Mining activities to be undertaken. Since Mining as an activity is more perceived to generate more money and could be used as basis for reserved to be converted into a mining cite more easily than Mining area to be converted into reserved land even if it is ecologically sound to do so.

Another conflict between legislation was stressed by Advocate Edward Lekaita from Ujamaa Community Resource Team, he highlighted that, the Wildlife Act prohibits settlement in the areas surrounding some parts of Loliondo. These areas are regarded as reserved land despite being inhabited by several villages settlement which are recognized by the Village Land Act and some of them possess Village Land Certificates.

On the other hand, in Tanzania all land is vested in the President as a trustee on behalf all citizens. The Land Act of 1999 states that the president can transfer land from one category to another (section 4(2)):

”The President and every person to whom the President may delegate any of this functions under this Act, and any person exercising powers under this Act, shall at all times exercise those functions powers and discharge duties as trustee of all the land in Tanzania so as to advance the economic and social welfare of the citizens”

Significantly, Hon. Yusuph Salim Hussein, Member of Parliament from South Pemba mentioned that result of the conflict of among laws and policies have created a serious hindrance on effective implementation and more importantly the aspects of benefit, rights, access, control and ownership of natural resources.

The morning discussion went further by discussing on how the Wildlife and Conservation Act 2009 gives less power for local communities to control, own, access and benefit from wildlife products compared to Forest legislation on utilization of products. Forest Legislation is considered to be the most progressive since it gives more powers and flexibility to local communities to utilize forest products with less control from state organs.

Natural resource laws need to be integrated in order to give communities more rights and flexibility to explore more benefits from the Forest, Wildlife, Land and Other Natural Resources without barriers.

Also, there should be provision of National dialogues to enhance learning and discussions between the government, communities, CSOs and Private Sector on management of natural resources at least once per year to build capacity of key institutions in order to improve both management and governance of natural resources.

Over the years the law-making process has lacked inclusivity and transparency. There is little involvement of the community members however, the government must ensure that Natural Resource Management Policy and Legislative making process are inclusive and must be done collaboratively. The government alone or for a few privileged classes of the society or experts cannot be the key drivers of the process. “We need the government to change the way community is involved in preparation of country laws and regulations” said one of the attendees.

Due to the fact the important policy, regulations and laws on Natural Resource Management are in English and the community that benefits from natural resources are Swahili speaking, translation of the laws should be done to allow the community to easily follow and understand their rights.


Development and the use of social media has been increasing all over the world serving the purpose of communication and information sharing amongst the public and institutions including the government, triggering the state to adopt social media as one of the important alternatives to reach out to the masses. In Tanzania, this also seems the case as the government attempts to accomplish various e-government goals providing public services to its citizens.

This was revealed at the Policy Forum Breakfast entitled “Is Social Media an Alternative Forum under the Context of Shrinking Space in Tanzania? ” based on a research by Dr. Aikande Kwayu aimed at exploring whether civic activities have shifted to social media in Tanzania.

Expounding on her research, she acknowledged that most entities in Tanzania including political party leaders have engaged social media as a tool for outreach to vocalizing their agenda to the community allowing candidates to communicate directly with citizens, keeping control of the content, distribution and timing of their messages, as well as reducing their dependence on traditional intermediaries such as journalists

Articulating her testimony Dr. Kwayu responded that she was personally affected by the Online Content Regulations as she was forced to shut down her blog not because of the annual fees that was put up against bloggers but because the regulations were too general and not clear on what they aim to achieve.

However, the government has also used social media to inform the public on new presidential appointments and development related issues for instance on Instagram , the state house has a page known as @ikulu_mawasiliano which is applied for communication between the state house and a wide range of Tanzanians who are also Instagram users.

“Fake news is real!” said Dr. Muhidin Shangwe of the University of Dar es Salam who was the discussant of the debate. There is a huge importance in the accuracy of information disseminated as it may mislead the end user.

Highlighting on internet censorship, Dr. Shangwe indicated more than two million people in China are employed by the government to monitor web activity, providing a rare glimpse into how the state tries to control the internet[i]

It was debated that social media can be used as a tool to instigate collective actions such as Arab Spring protests. Some of these digital protests may succeed and others may prove futile such as an incident that happened on April 26th , 2018 whereby a Tanzanian blogger who resides in the United States known as Mange Kimambi mobilized people on Instagram to protest against the current regime.

Dr. Kwayu highlighted as closing remarks the following as recommendation; Civic space is not given to an individual , it needs to be created it by being more vigilant and there is a need to filter the relevance of news differentiate fake news from real.




Stakeholders in Tanzania have been reminded that in order to fight corruption successfully, it was important to bear in mind that the vice was more of a structural problem than one of individual moral turpitude, and as such, it can only be addressed by comprehensive structural change.

This was said during a recent Policy Forum monthly breakfast debate held on the 30th of November 2018 which was dedicated to the launch of the review of the functions of the Prevention and Combating of Corruption Bureau (PCCB) to determine whether the public was obtaining value for money in the fight against corruption in Tanzania.

Entitled “Tanzania Governance Review: Are Efforts to Prevent and Combat Corruption Good Value for Money?”, the main presentation was made by Brian Cooksey from the Tanzania Development Research Group in partnership with Paul Mikongoti and Fundikila Wazambi from the Legal Human Rights Center (LHRC).

Paul Mikongoti commenced by introducing the bureau and its functions as being “responsible for corruption control in Tanzania’s criminal justice system” and “answerable to the President’s office, not to parliament.  PCCB can only bring to court cases approved by the Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP)”.

Mikongoti continued by saying Tanzania’s last three presidents (Mkapa, Kikwete and Magufuli) all found fault with their predecessors’ anti-corruption record, but external pressures have also been instrumental in shaping Tanzanian anti-corruption efforts.  As CCM’s presidential candidate in the country’s first competitive elections (1995), Benjamin Mkapa ran on an anti-corruption platform. Both local and external observers perceived that economic liberalisation under President Ali Hassan Mwinyi (1985-95) had been accompanied by a quantum leap in the incidence of corruption in state institutions and in relations with elements of the private sector. Mkapa’s accession to power coincided with the emergence of the global anti-corruption movement, and the rise of ‘good governance’ as an influential concept in the aid lexicon.

He highlighted from the findings after its establishment in 2007 and said PCCB grew rapidly in both staffing and national outreach. “PCCB claims to have a presence in every region and most districts in the country. Yet the number of corruption cases brought to court is a small fraction of the cases reported and investigated, and the number of convictions is remarkably low. While the expansion of the Bureau outside Dar es Salaam has increased the number of petty corruption cases brought to court, there has been little progress in sanctioning top officials and businesspeople involved in grand and political corruption.”

Furthermore, Brian Cooksey highlighted the perspectives of the review and how it was conducted and said that PCCB refused to endorse it citing security reasons which made it difficult to acquire accurate data.

Cooksey stated that due to the efforts and strategy of Policy Forum with continued engagements with PCCB, it somehow provided a way for the study to be completed.

The exception—the arrest in June 2017 of the principals in the Escrow/IPTL scandal—was a clear break with PCCB’s past record of protecting some of the most corrupt elements in the country. Still there is a growing log-jam of high-profile cases that have yet to be brought to court

Presenting on the Legal perspective, Fundikila Wazambi from LHRC said cases are heard in magistrates, district and high courts, and since 2016 there has been a High Court Division dealing exclusively with corruption.

“While corruption is prosecuted under the 2007 Prevention and Combating of Corruption Act (PCCA), the Bureau can also prosecute under the Public Procurement Act, and the National Audit Office (NAOT) provides the Bureau with information on district councils or development projects that are suspected of corruption. Parliament’s oversight role is minimal; the Bureau’s voted budget is not known in detail, and actual expenditure even less so. There have been repeated demands in parliament to review the 2007 legislation to make fines and sentences better reflect the seriousness of the crime,” he added.

Wazambi continued by saying that it has become increasingly evident that PCCB lacks adequate numbers of skilled lawyers and financial resources to investigate and prosecute complex corruption cases, most of which involve an international dimension.

“Bringing cases to court is also problematic. Witnesses can be bought off or threatened and are known to contradict their sworn statements in court.107 Judges sometimes recuse themselves from hearing ‘sensitive’ cases. The few high-profile corruption cases that reach court routinely drag on with constant adjournments and an excess of technical over substantive procedures.  The result is a slow and inefficient criminal justice system in which justice is rarely done or seen to be done. Inadequate staff and finance and low technical capacity in PCCB are part of a much bigger malaise affecting the entire judiciary,” he said.

Wazambi also stressed that punishing a few ‘minnows’ for petty corruption with disproportionate fines and prison sentences, while letting the ‘sharks’ get away with systematic looting, imposing trivial fines on the rare occasions that some of them are found guilty, but not confiscating property or handing out substantial jail sentences, arguably amounts to an abuse of human rights

The backlog of cases yet to be brought to court is growing steadily as more investigations are ordered by President Magufuli’s government.  The number of corruption cases brought to court is a small fraction of the cases reported and investigated, and the number of convictions is remarkably low,” Wazambi said.

Bahame T. Nyanduga from the Mwl. Nyerere Foundation cited the TANU Constitution “Rushwa ni Adui wa Haki, Sitatoa wala Kupokea Rushwa” and then stressed that for over 60 years we have been fighting corruption but still we cannot discuss it FREELY.

Nyanduga correspondingly highlighted the Corruption Perception Index 2017 conducted by Transparency International, Tanzania  was listed 103 with the score of 36 forming a tie with Bahrain, Ivory Coast and Mongolia.

Moroever, Mr. Bahame, the main presenters and others came up with recommendations to improve the situation regarding corruption in Tanzania:


  • The government should encourage free speech regarding Corruption
  • Pursuing individual cases of corruption on an ad hoc basis across the country is akin to swotting mosquitos in a room where all the doors and windows have been left open.  The few cases of (mostly petty) corruption prosecutes successfully cannot be considered a deterrent to corruption. It is worth repeating that corruption is a structural issue, not one of individual moral turpitude, and as such can only be addressed by structural change.
  • The anti-corruption model adopted by the Government  of Tanzania is based on  false assumptions concerning the nature of ‘corruption’ and therefore the best means to control and combat it;
  •  Systemic corruption can only be addressed through collective action, involving multiple agents, not by a stand-alone agent of state power.
  • Initiate  a broad-based public debate on alternative approaches to corruption prevention and control from value-for-money, governance and human rights perspectives.

A recent study by Restless Development, a Policy Forum member organization, indicates that, three (3) out of ten (10) youth agree that there are laws and procedures related to good governance and accountability that enable people to hold their leaders to account. This was said during the last week of October at the morning public dialogue dubbed as Policy Forum Breakfast Debate held at the British Council, Dar es Salaam.

A presentation done by Vivian Ngowi from Restless Development on “The State of Youth in Tanzania: What are youth’s perceptions in relation to the status of employment, education, health, governance and accountability?” indicates that 23% of youth agree that they have access to political, social and economic information leaving the remaining 77% lacking this information.  Ngowi highlighted that only 36% of youth agree that young people are involved sin various issues that affect them directly such as development of policies, representation in decision-making levels such as local meetings.

Regarding agricultural employment and funds, the study indicates that less than 50% of youth agree that agricultural inputs are easily accessible at an affordable price, and that grants are not very easily provided to small industries. Also 31% of youth agree that National youth development funds is beneficial in increasing their livelihoods.

Furthermore, it is indicated that more than 49% youth agree that school curricula are not in par with the changes in economic and social trends and 70% think there is no improvement in accessing higher education in Tanzania.

The debate insisted that 32% of Tanzanian youth think that corruption and bureaucracy have been regulated in accessing health care services but also 48% say availability of youth insurance for young people is still limited. Ngowi stressed that, 44% of youth agree that health facilities infrastructure has been improved.

One of the participant, Richard Mabala, said that young people are not given enough priority and their welfare at the policy level is set in a Ministry that is inundated with too many issues that those on youth are overlooked. Many young people do not know about the anational youth policy and the importance of having  a National Youth Council, which has been debated for almost twenty years now and has not yet been established.

Mabala argued that for Tanzania to move forward particularly in the creative industry, it is mandatory for youth to be given priority and special opportunities. He added that our education system
 does not satisfy the needs of Tanzanian youth especially in expanding their analytical aptitude and intellect. Tanzania education is designed to test the youth’s memory rather that how to analyze
 and see issues from a multitude of perspectives. Despite the government's efforts on youth, there is still a need to give young people more attention.















Findings show that civil society organizations (CSOs) can play an important role in enhancing transparency and good governance in developing countries by contributing to increased public debate on issues surrounding the formulation and implementation of government budgets as well as in supporting greater transparency of public revenues.

According to the World Bank: “Civil society ... refers to a wide array of organizations: community groups, non-governmental organizations [NGOs], labour unions, indigenous groups, charitable organizations, faith-based organizations, professional associations, and foundations.”

When mobilized, civil society - sometimes called the “third sector” (after government and commerce) - has the power to influence the actions of elected policy-makers and businesses. But the nature of civil society - what it is and what it does - is evolving, in response to both technological developments and more nuanced changes within societies.

Contributing to on a topic titled “How can Civil Society Organisations and government collaborate to enhance governance and accountability?, during the just ended ‘CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS WEEK 2018’, that was held in Dodoma, Policy Forum’s (PF) Coordinator Mr. Semkae Kilonzo said that as a network for quiet sometime now they they have been closely collaborating with the government in different developmental issues that touch citizens’ livelihoods.

According to Kilonzo, PF is a network that comprised over 70 Tanzanian civil organizations drawn together by their specific interest in augmenting the voice of ordinary citizens to influence policy processes that help in poverty reduction, equity and democratization with a specific focus on public money accountability at both central and local levels.

Civil Society Organizations Week 2018’, themed: Industrialization Drive in Tanzania: People, policy and practice.”

Kilonzo told a packed room that some of their major roles as a network have been to track and monitor public resources management through one of their tools known as social accountability monitoring (SAM). “By using this tool we are tracking how public funds are utilized from the source to the targeted common citizens.

He however, suggested that in order for a Network to be productive, workable and efficient for the common good of the citizenry, it should have three pillars namely: To have members who are committed, firm and dedicatedly participating in all day to day businesses of the network.

“More often this is not an easy thing as most of you might think. Sometime you can find the objectives and interests of one of the members in the network have different interests which opposite to those that caused him/her to join the network. This is a problem,” he noted.

He further urged “The objectives and interests of a member of a network need to go in line with that of the network.”

The second pillar crucial is for the Network to have strong and unshakable secretariat. “The secretariat needs to work professionally without shaking. And it should know the wishes of a member and those of a network.”

The third pillar of the net work is a board of directors. This should reflect the diversity of its members... widely disseminated to policy makers, civil society and the general public, among others. “A board needs to know the wishes, and objectives of members. And if possible it should warn, and even punish any member who goes against the laid down norms of a network,” he said.

Meanwhile, Mr. Kilonzo said that he was opposing the suggestion by some members who wanted financial resources to be regarded as the fourth pillar of a network; saying a network or an organization could operate successfully to achieve it missions without it.

He concurred with some civil organizations that start having their objectives as ideas in mind, and when they get money it is when will know what to do. He cited the English sage that says “When you have a good idea financial resources will automatically come. Adding:

My good advice to CSOs is that you first need to have your good idea on whatever you are intending to do, financial resources will come,” he suggested.

All in all, Policy Forum’s boss has called for unity among CSOs, community, and government as key stakeholders for the betterment of the entire nation. “United we stand, divided we fall.”

Policy Forum Board of Directors Chairperson Mr. Japhet Makongo revealed that the genesis for them (Policy Forum), to make social accountability monitoring was targeting to deliver quality service that ould reach a targeted common Tanzanian in time. “Accountability needs to be done by ourselves because we are also part and parcel of the community,” he said.

For his part, Executive Director of Foundation for Civil Society, which is mandated to support some CSOs with funds Mr. Francis Kiwanga commended the CSOs for good advocacy and service delivery to the people they were serving in collaboration of the government. “I can see the sector is now growing. What you now need to consolidate your network. You need to bridge the shrinking spaces if are existing among yourselves for the common good of the bigger masses,’ he urged.

He further said that his Foundation has minimized its support to 263 CSOs in 2017 from 653 CSOs in 2014 due to financial status.

Sara Mwaga from anti female genital mutilation network (AFNET), a member of Policy Forum called for joint efforts and same language among CSOs in order to bring changes and benefits to their members. “The issue of joint efforts is unavoidable so as to enable a member to get his rights,” she said.

She warned some secretariats of some CSOs to act as semi-gods, and the members are regarded as secondary.

Chairman of Parliament Committee of Regional Administration and Local Government Affairs, who also doubles as Bukoba Rural Member of Parliament Advocate Jackson Rweikiza said that CSOs were partners with the government to bringing development to the citizenry, and not foes.

“When executing your duties, you should not be in confrontation with the government of the day smoothly that is when you will succeed. And if you do vice versa you will not succeed in your missions,” he counseled.

Meanwhile, Adv. Rweikiza told CSOs to graduate and become sustainable even when donors pullout after phasing of the project.

Special seats MP of the National Assembly, Martha Mlata also gave a piece of advice to CSOs to have good language when working with government officials in their respective areas to avoid confrontation. “Other CSOs come with readymade answers and act like political parties. Avoid such behaviour,’ she warned.

Ms. Mlata has urged CSOs also be transparent in their daily undertakings so that they become trusted by the government of the day.

Director of Sector Coordination President’s Office Regional Administration and Local Government, Dr Andrew M. Komba said that the government was recognizing the contribution by CSOs in the country in the different sectors.

“We are happy with the way you operate; let’s increased the integration so as to remove the existing small challenges among us,’ he called.

Meanwhile, Dr Komba has called upon all district council directors across the country to collaborate and work with CSOs operating in their respective areas as the circular wanted them to do for the benefits of the citizenry.

NGOs Acting Registrar Mr Leonard Baraka has told the CSOs that if they wanted to work smoothly without colliding with the government, they need to work within their laid down code of conduct. “You need to establish a sector that is transparent, vibrant and accountable.”

Another school of thought has urged CSOs that if they wanted to be successful in their daily duties, they need to have a “consistent, principled and committed stand in the interest of the large masses and for human values and causes”.

The large masses are the working people in villages and towns, often exploited and oppressed, but who are central in the struggle to regain and improve their livelihoods, dignity, and power. Thus true NGOs and other civil society organizations, worth their name, should be broad-based membership organizations of working people, the wananchi, not of the elite.

The aim of the struggle, through promoting different perspectives and fostering open, protracted public debates, is development of alternate ways of doing things, effective participation in democratic institutions of the state and to bring about “popular livelihoods, popular participation and popular power.

This is, indeed, the essence of democratic governance. As stated earlier on, CSOs, including NGOs, FBOs and CBOs, were formed with specific objectives. Individual CSOs have also organized themselves into networks and coalitions at local, district, and national levels with common objectives.

Reference to civil society in official documents in recent years is an indication of the recognition of Government that development is a participatory process. Indeed, CSOs articulated their roles in development when they formed themselves. It is also through the space provided by Government that CSOs participated in framing the roles appearing in policy documents.

By Daniel Semberya 


Tanzania has a wealth of natural, cultural and man-made attractions in all parts of the country which are untapped from the standpoint of tourism development. Although the potential is there, not all areas can be developed in the foreseeable future because of the problems of inadequate access, poor infrastructure and lack of utilities.

The World Economic Forum ranked Tanzania at 119 (of 140 countries) in terms of quality of labour in the tourism industry in 2017. Presenting on the Policy Forum September Breakfast debate titled  ‘Converging wildlife conservation and tourism in Tanzania: What can be done for policy coherence?’ which was co-faciliated by Tanzania Natural Resource Forum (TNRF), Mr. Moses Ngereza from Tourism Confederation of Tanzania (TCT) said efficacious implementation of the policy would enhance the country’s revenue collections from tourism.

Ngereza projected that 80% of Government tourist revenue (national and local) comes from just four (4) protected areas: Serengeti, Ngorongoro, Manyara and Kilimanjaro. He recommended that there is a need for more Public Private Partnerships in management and exploitation of our conservation areas and stimulate all possible diversification.

To widen up the tourism sector, however, there is a need to fast-track tourism infrastructure development. Tourism infrastructure is still under developed most critical are airports/ airstrips, land for tourism investment (hotels, beach resorts, campsites, airport hotels), and roads to access protected areas.

Ngereza further recommended the following in order to improve the tourism sector:

Government should make one-window-payment for the tourism industry which will consolidate taxes and levies which will consequently reduce corruption and save time.

Also, it should perform several researches on the industry in order to make well informed decision and strategies, improve benefits sharing mechanism to the community in the Wildlife Management Areas, introduce new tourism strategy together with private sector, institute in law the need for notice of any significant changes in the government policy (especially on introduction of new fees etc to fit international business laws at least 24 months) and timely update of laws and regulations.

Wiith regard to making sure the future generation embraces the tourism sector, Ngereza advised the government to introduce tourism and conservation studies in the primary and and secondary schools curriculum.

Hon. Jitu Vrajlal Soni, Member of Parliament from Babati emphasised on the raising awareness to the public in regard to the environment. This is due to the fact that Tanzania has the existences of laws and regulations that do not complement each other for instance the clearance of 1000s of hectares of the Selous Game Reserve.

Meanwhile, the Tanzania Tour Guide Association also commented on the challenges they face in the tourism sector such as “Single Entry Policy” which states that tourists should pay for every entry made in the tourist sites. One of the representatives recommended that the policy should be discussed thoroughly and reviewed as for most tourist have complained on its application.

However, a senior tourism official in the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, Mr David Mpangile, told participants at a Breakfast meeting that the government is in the final stages of updating the tourism policy. “The document will be released soon, and it  addresses various challenges in the tourism industry,”. He continued by saying “the Ministry has a new digital system which is time conscious and take up to 3 minutes to make payments”. He also highlighted that there is a new brand for Tanzania and it was launched on 22nd May 2018. The Tanzania tourism brand is known as ‘Tanzania, Unforgettable’. He further commended Policy Forum for coordinating the morning debate which allows people to freely express their ideas.

Member of Parliament from Tarime, Hon. Esther Matiko suggested that there should be involvement of the private sector in the tourism industry. As a member of the Tanzania Parliamentarian Friends of the Environment, she also said that the laws need to be a little welcoming to the private investors to contribute in the industry. And also, that innovative enhancement of the tourist attractions with sports and other activities will help boost up tourism

She further stressed that a choice to either grow gradually as we have been doing or step up our growth. The current revenue contribution is still very compared to the potential that Tanzania has.

The government has been urged to support the cost-sharing and applications of joint title-deeds or co-occupancy in land titling in Tanzania to reduce the burden borne by poor individuals when seeking to formalise land ownership and to tackle the inequality between men and women in land access. This call was made during the August 2018 Policy Forum Monthly Breakfast Debate.

Presenting a study that was conducted by OXFAM Tanzania in cooperation with the National Land Use and Planning Commission entitled “Leveraging Cost in Land Titling: What are the Insights from Stakeholders?”, Dastan Kweka stressed the importance of land titling in allowing for simple, quick and inexpensive land transfers. “Titling protects the property owner's legal title to land for both the seller and purchaser of property, and is critically important for economic stability, investment and social stability.”

Kweka also noted this was increasingly becoming more important in light of the rapid population growth, an influx of large-scale land-based investments and the subsequent increase in land conflicts have made land use planning and titling increasingly important.

Land use planning, however, remains an expensive undertaking and out of reach for many resource-starved villages. Research has shown that cost is a leading single obstacle. For instance, Ali et. al., (2014) noted that “prices—rather than other implementation failures or features of the titling regime—are a key obstacle to broader inclusion in the land registry.” In addition, Stein, et al., (2016) observes that this is the case due to multiple fees, that is, “application fees, technician fees for plot surveys, ‘facilitation’ costs to the village land committee and district land registrar, court registration fees, lawyers’ fees, and travel costs” (Stein, et. al., 2016).

Nonetheless, the cost of undertaking the process of land titling is, in general, prohibitively high. From a research report on mechanisms for leveraging cost in rural land tilting as practiced by stakeholders in Tanzania. Leverage, in the context of the study, is defined as a range of measures employed by stakeholders to cut costs and share the burden.

Furthermore, he stressed that cost is not an insurmountable factor and that cost sharing is key in expanding affordability, enhancing ownership and accelerating the titling process but there have been limited efforts to seize the opportunity that land titling provides to address gender inequality in land ownership.

Prof. Faustin Maganga, from the University of Dar es Salaam, highlighted that cost sharing is key in leveraging cost and should be encouraged. Its implementation, however, must be informed by a careful economic assessment of the targeted group to ensure the rate set for contribution is affordable.

Ownership, control and management of land in Tanzania, nevertheless, is vested in the President as trustee for and on behalf of all citizens of Tanzania.  For the purposes of management only, all land is classified as general land, village land and reserve land. The President has powers to transfer land from one category to another. Reserve lands are forests, wildlife areas, etc., which constitute 28 percent of all lands. Village land is all land that falls under the jurisdiction of the existing 10,832 registered villages in the country which constitutes nearly 70 per cent of all land. The rest is mostly urban land and that land already under granted titles. The Commissioner for Lands is the sole authority responsible for overall administration of all lands but has delegated his powers to authorized land officers at district/municipal level. The Village Councils manage all village land with  advice  from  the  Commissioner  for  Lands.  The reserved lands  are managed  by  statutory  bodies Tanzania  Land  Policy  and  Genesis  of Land Reforms (2012).

Henceforth, Land use planning and titling offers an opportunity to promote gender equality in land ownership through effective participation of women throughout the planning cycle and encouraging co-occupancy.

The following recommendations came out as part of the debate;

Budgetary investment in land titling from the government has been limited due to limits in cost recovery. Nevertheless, the government should explore options for recovery avenues that encourage compliance and enhance support for the initiative.

To secure utilization access and rights to land and natural resources for pastoral communities and enhance their participation in natural resource management.

To reduce conflicts related to incompatible resource utilisation, especially between agriculture and pastoralism, and pastoralism and wildlife conservation.

Prof. Maganga also stated that the best way to protect land rights is through the formalization of land which provided secure village boundaries though issuing of Certificates of Village Land (CVLs), land use planning and individual plot focused certificates of customary rights of occupancy.

Photo by Reinout Van Den Bergh


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