Policy Forum


Public Money Accountability and Transparency are fundamental principles of good governance describing the need of a management structure in charge of ensuring a transparent decision-making process to realize the mission and objectives of the Government. This is derived from the human rights-based approach that describes the citizens as right holders and the Government as duty bearers. It emphasizes on the need for individuals as right holders to be fully informed about their rights and to participate in decisions that affect them because of the fact that the resources used are ultimately public, in the sense that they come from the public.

The rights-based approach deals not just with outcomes but also with how those outcomes are achieved. It recognizes that people are actors in their own development, rather than passive recipients of services. Their participation is central, not only to ensure they have ownership over the programme, but also to sustain progress. A rights-based approach develops the capacity of duty-bearers to meet their obligations and encourages rights holders to claim their rights.


The role of CSOs in enhancing transparency is recognized as shown in a number of important policy papers including the Constitution and the national framework on good governance. The National Framework for Good governance recognizes CSOs as constituting a strong instrument for the effective participation and involvement of people in decision making. It is further stated that CSOs have a crucial role in informing and sensitizing the people on transparency. However, the challenge lies in the actual implementation of these stated principles and this has affected the realization of transparency in the country. For instance, Issues of open contracting has been the core business of most of the extractive related CSOs. The question still remains have CSOs done enough? Are the principles simply theoretical rather than practical?

Public Money Accountability

Public Money Accountability is just one dimension of the accountability framework that underpins our constitution. In ensuring public money accountability, two aspects are regarded here. Firstly, CSOs as watch dogs. The concern is to ensure that regardless of what public money is spent on, or which bodies are spending it, it is spent properly with due regard to value for money, hence the focus is on financial accountability. However, the society feels like CSOs have not been doing much in this area since there are reported cases of embezzlement in the country.

Secondly CSOs as an accountability instrument. CSOs accountability is nowadays both a necessity and a duty. Recently, however, accountability of CSOs themselves has become a frequently addressed issue and there are several reasons for this. Civil society has grown, it has gained visibility and has a more prominent role than ever in local, national and international development; as a result, it has a greater responsibility to account for what it does and how it does it. some cases of corruption, misuse of funds or bad practices have been identified in some CSOs. This is a limited phenomenon, but if it is not dealt with properly, it may end up putting in question the legitimacy of civil society in general not just of the organizations affected. Experience shows that CSOs tend to be much more attentive to donors’ demands than to the opinions of the people or groups they work with or represent. These are the most neglected accountability issues, and this is a problem.


The main purpose of this study is to ascertain on what has been the role of CSOs in ensuring transparency and public money accountability. It seeks to answer questions like; Has all the advocacy work been fruitful in Tanzania? Do CSOs hold Government officials accountable on behalf of the citizens? Do CSOs practise what they preach? Has transparency been realised? This is specifically with the aim of:

Showcasing case studies of CSOs that have influenced transparency and public money accountability through advocacy work.

Describing how they went about to achieving the success stories. The techniques and strategies.

Pinpointing the challenges encountered by CSOs in influencing the two fundamental principles of good governance.

Recommend relevant actions to be taken by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in the future interventions.


The consultant is expected to provide a draft report of the analysis to Policy Forum within 30 days after being engaged.

The secretariat will go through the draft report and provide comments on the same. The consultant will be required to finalize the document and submit a final version within an agreed timeline with the secretariat.

Expiration Date: 
Friday, July 31, 2020

Interested consultants should attach a detailed Proposal and budget, CV and a sample of previous studies conducted. Strong understanding of the work of CSOs around Transparency and accountability is a prerequisite. All documents should be sent to with subject “Study on the role of CSOs in Transparency and Public Money Accountability in Tanzania” by 31st July 2020

PDF icon Concept Note-TGR.pdf146.24 KB

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